Thursday, September 8, 2005

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Encyclopædia Britannica Article Page  1  of  1  Print PagePrint ArticleE-mail ArticleCite Article Photograph:Oura Roman Catholic Church and, beyond, houses built on a hillside, Nagasaki, Japan
Oura Roman Catholic Church and, beyond, houses built on a hillside, Nagasaki, Japan
Orion Press, Japan capital and largest city, Nagasaki ken (prefecture), western Kyushu, Japan, at the mouth of the Urakami-gawa (Urakami River) where it empties into Nagasaki-ko (Nagasaki Harbour). The harbour is composed of a narrow, deep-cut bay, formed at the meeting point of Nomo-saki (Cape Nomo; south) and Nishisonoki-hanto (Nishisonoki Peninsula; northwest). The city is shaped like an amphitheatre, with its crooked streets and tiered houses clinging to the hillsides that enclose the inner bay. Reclaimed land at bayside and the Urakami Basin provide some level land. Although the perception is that the city is totally modern and rebuilt since 1945, actually Nagasaki has a number of areas where old buildings and temples remain. Nagasaki was Japan's second oldest port open to foreign trade (after Hirado). It was the only Japanese port permitted by the Tokugawa shogunate (military government) between 1639 and 1859 when all other ports were closed. Portuguese traders (who introduced Roman Catholicism and guns to Japan) first arrived there in the mid-16th century. Soon after the introduction of Catholicism, large groups of Japanese converted to the new religion. Feeling threatened by this new faith, the shogunate began persecuting Christians, including 26 martyrs—6 Franciscan missionaries and 20 Japanese laypeople—who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597. The martyrs were canonized by the Vatican in 1862, and the Oura Roman Catholic Church, built in Gothic style, was erected in 1864 to commemorate them. By the 1600s, tensions had risen to such a state that the Portuguese were expelled, along with the Protestant English; trade was then restricted to the Dutch and, to a lesser degree, the Chinese and Koreans. Over the next 200 years, as the rest of Japan was closed to the West, Nagasaki became a centre for information on Western technology and science. When Nagasaki was fully reopened to the West in the 1850s, it became a major port for trade. It was a leading East Asian coaling station and served as the winter port of the Russian Asiatic fleet until 1903. In the early 20th century the city became a major shipbuilding centre; it was this industry that led to Nagasaki's being chosen as a target for the second atomic bomb dropped on Japan by the United States in World War II. The bomb was dropped on August 9, 1945, and destroyed the innermost portion of Nagasaki; between 60,000 and 80,000 persons were killed. Exact figures are difficult, however, for many records were destroyed by the bomb and the overall devastation of the area made accurate accounting for casualties impossible. Still, estimates indicate that some 40,000 people were killed immediately with the rest dying within the next few months because of burns, injuries, or radiation exposure. The terrain and smaller size of Nagasaki reduced the destruction of life and property as compared to that of the atomic bomb explosion over Hiroshima, although the bomb dropped on Nagasaki was significantly more powerful. About 40 percent of the city's buildings were completely destroyed or severely damaged. Since World War II, the city has been rebuilt and is significant as a spiritual centre for movements to ban nuclear weapons. Nagasaki is an important tourist centre; its industry is still based upon its large shipyards, which are grouped along the western and inner parts of the harbour. The city also contains numerous historic sites. The Sofuku-ji (Chinese Temple; 1629) is a fine example of Chinese Ming dynasty architecture, inhabited by Chinese Buddhist monks. A fine view of Nagasaki-ko is offered by the Glover Mansion, the home of a 19th-century British merchant and reputed to be the site of Puccini's opera Madama Butterfly. Peace Park, on the Urakami-gawa, was established under the point of detonation of the bomb. The Roman Catholic cathedral of Urakami (built in 1959 to replace the original 1914 cathedral that was destroyed by the bomb) overlooks the park. Pop. (1995) 438,724.


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Encyclopædia Britannica Article Page  1  of  1  Print PagePrint ArticleE-mail ArticleCite Article Photograph:Atomic Bomb Dome (Genbaku dmu) in Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan.
Atomic Bomb Dome (Genbaku domu) in Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan.
© Rich Iwasaki—Tony Stone Images Map/Still

city and capital of Hiroshima ken (prefecture), southwestern Honshu, Japan, on Hiroshima Bay of the Inland Sea. The city is situated on the delta of the Ota River, whose six channels divide it into several islets. Hiroshima, whose name means “Broad Island,” was founded as a castle town by the feudal lord Mori Terumoto in the 16th century. From 1868 onward it was a military centre, and on Aug. 6, 1945, it became the first city in the world to be struck by an atomic bomb, which was dropped by a B-29 bomber of the U.S. Air Forces. Most of the city was destroyed, and estimates of the number killed outright or shortly after the blast have ranged upward from 70,000. Deaths from radiation injury have mounted through the years.
Photograph:Aftermath of the atomic blast at Hiroshima, Japan, August 1945.
Aftermath of the atomic blast at Hiroshima, Japan, August 1945.
© Archive Photos/Popperfoto Reconstruction under a comprehensive city-planning scheme was begun about 1950 with the rebuilding of the Inari Bridge. Now the largest industrial city in that section of Japan encompassed by the Chugoku (western Honshu) and Shikoku regions, Hiroshima contains many administrative offices, public-utility centres, and colleges and universities. Industries produce steel, automobiles, rubber, chemicals, ships, and transport machinery. The city is Japan's major needle producer.
Photograph:Cenotaph in Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan; Atomic Bomb Dome is visible through the arch.
Cenotaph in Peace Memorial Park, Hiroshima, Japan; Atomic Bomb Dome is visible through the arch.
Bob Glaze—Artstreet Hiroshima has become a spiritual centre of the peace movement for the banning of nuclear weapons. In 1947 the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (since 1975 the Radiation Effects Research Foundation) began to conduct medical and biological research on the effects of radiation in Hiroshima. Five public hospitals and 40 private clinics give free treatment to victims of the bombing. Hiroshima Castle was restored in 1957 and houses a museum of city history. Peace Memorial Park, located at the epicentre of the atomic blast, contains a museum and monuments dedicated to those killed by the explosion. The cenotaph for victims of the bombing is shaped like an enormous saddle, resembling the small clay saddles placed in ancient Japanese tombs; it contains a stone chest with a scroll listing the names of those killed. A commemorative service is held at the park every August 6th. The museum and cenotaph were designed by the Japanese architect Tange Kenzo, and two peace bridges at the park were sculpted by the American artist Isamu Noguchi. Millions of paper cranes, the Japanese symbol of longevity and happiness, are heaped about the Children's Peace Memorial throughout the year; this tradition was inspired by a 12-year-old girl who contracted leukemia and died as an aftereffect of the bombing. Atomic Bomb Dome (Genbaku domu), which was designated a World Heritage site in 1996, is the remains of one of the few buildings not obliterated by the blast. Pop. (1995) 1,108,868.


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Manhattan Project

Encyclopædia Britannica Article Page  1  of  1  Print PagePrint ArticleE-mail ArticleCite Article Photograph:First atomic bomb test, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945.
First atomic bomb test, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945.
Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico U.S. government research project (1942–45) that produced the first atomic bombs. American scientists, many of them refugees from fascist regimes in Europe, took steps in 1939 to organize a project to exploit the newly recognized fission process for military purposes. The first contact with the government was made by G.B. Pegram of Columbia University, who arranged a conference between Enrico Fermi and the Navy Department in March 1939. In the summer of 1939, Albert Einstein was persuaded by his fellow scientists to use his influence and present the military potential of an uncontrolled fission chain reaction to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In February 1940, ,000 was made available to start research under the supervision of a committee headed by L.J. Briggs, director of the National Bureau of Standards. On December 6, 1941, the project was put under the direction of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, headed by Vannevar Bush. After the U.S. entry into the war, the War Department was given joint responsibility for the project, since by mid-1942 it was obvious that a vast array of pilot plants, laboratories, and manufacturing facilities would have to be constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers so that the assembled scientists could carry out their mission. In June 1942 the Corps of Engineers' Manhattan District was initially assigned management of the construction work (because much of the early research had been performed at Columbia University, in Manhattan), and in September 1942 Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves was placed in charge of all Army activities (chiefly engineering activities) relating to the project. “Manhattan Project” became the code name for research work that would extend across the country. It was known in 1940 that German scientists were working on a similar project and that the British were also exploring the problem. In the fall of 1941 Harold C. Urey and Pegram visited England to attempt to set up a cooperative effort, and by 1943 a combined policy committee with Great Britain and Canada was established. In that year a number of scientists of those countries moved to the United States to join the project there. If the project were to achieve success quickly, several lines of research and development had to be carried on simultaneously before it was certain whether any might succeed. The explosive materials then had to be produced and be made suitable for use in an actual weapon. Uranium-235, the essential fissionable component of the postulated bomb, cannot be separated from its natural companion, the much more abundant uranium-238, by chemical means; the atoms of these respective isotopes must rather be separated from each other by physical means. Several physical methods to do this were intensively explored, and two were chosen—the electromagnetic process developed at the University of California at Berkeley under Ernest Orlando Lawrence and the diffusion process developed under Urey at Columbia University. Both of these processes, and particularly the diffusion method, required large, complex facilities and huge amounts of electric power to produce even small amounts of separated uranium-235. Philip Hauge Abelson developed a third method called thermal diffusion, which was also used for a time to effect a preliminary separation. These methods were put into production at a 70-square-mile (180-square-km) tract near Knoxville, Tennessee, originally known as the Clinton Engineer Works, later as Oak Ridge. Only one method was available for the production of the fissionable material plutonium-239. It was developed at the metallurgical laboratory of the University of Chicago under the direction of Arthur Holly Compton and involved the transmutation in a reactor pile of uranium-238. In December 1942 Fermi finally succeeded in producing and controlling a fission chain reaction in this reactor pile at Chicago. Quantity production of plutonium-239 required the construction of a reactor of great size and power that would release about 25,000 kilowatt-hours of heat for each gram of plutonium produced. It involved the development of chemical extraction procedures that would work under conditions never before encountered. An intermediate step in putting this method into production was taken with the construction of a medium-size reactor at Oak Ridge. The large-scale production reactors were built on an isolated 1,000-square-mile (2,600-square-km) tract on the Columbia River north of Pasco, Washington—the Hanford Engineer Works. Before 1943, work on the design and functioning of the bomb itself was largely theoretical, based on fundamental experiments carried out at a number of different locations. In that year a laboratory directed by J. Robert Oppenheimer was created on an isolated mesa at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 34 miles (55 km) north of Santa Fe. This laboratory had to develop methods of reducing the fissionable products of the production plants to pure metal and fabricating the metal to required shapes. Methods of rapidly bringing together amounts of fissionable material to achieve a supercritical mass (and thus a nuclear explosion) had to be devised, along with the actual construction of a deliverable weapon that would be dropped from a plane and fused to detonate at the proper moment in the air above the target. Most of these problems had to be solved before any appreciable amount of fissionable material could be produced, so that the first adequate amounts could be used at the fighting front with minimum delay. By the summer of 1945, amounts of plutonium-239 sufficient to produce a nuclear explosion had become available from the Hanford Works, and weapon development and design were sufficiently far advanced so that an actual field test of a nuclear explosive could be scheduled. Such a test was no simple affair. Elaborate and complex equipment had to be assembled so that a complete diagnosis of success or failure could be had. By this time the original ,000 authorized for the Manhattan Project had grown to billion. The first atomic bomb was exploded at 5:30 AM on July 16, 1945, at a site on the Alamogordo air base 120 miles (193 km) south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. It was detonated on top of a steel tower surrounded by scientific equipment, with remote monitoring taking place in bunkers occupied by scientists and a few dignitaries 10,000 yards (9 km) away. The explosion came as an intense light flash, a sudden wave of heat, and later a tremendous roar as the shock wave passed and echoed in the valley. A ball of fire rose rapidly, followed by a mushroom cloud extending to 40,000 feet (12,200 metres). The bomb generated an explosive power equivalent to 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT; the tower was completely vaporized and the surrounding desert surface fused to glass for a radius of 800 yards (730 metres). The following month, two other atomic bombs produced by the project, the first using uranium-235 and the second using plutonium, were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.


je te suis pas
tu me lache cette article comme ca, on est deja tous des clones ok ok, quand je le lis ok mais le graph je le comprends toujours pas


man, you're not the first one to say that about the mass


moi ca va je ressemble a aucunes de ces personnes sur les fotos. Etienne ca m'etonnes pas que tu te reconnaisses la dedans, t'as toujours aime te fondre dans le moule


I wouldn't mind smoking with a clone of myself.
; ;




Doesn't work?


sorry, I fixed your deviant icon... php-xml turn me crazeeee!!!! Test "L'enquête a conclu que Thales Engineering and Consulting (THEC, filiale de Thales) avait versé des pots-de-vin afin d'obtenir, en 2002, le juteux marché de maîtrise d'oeuvre (14,3 millions d'euros) du tramway. "


ben quoi Thales qui donne des pots de vin? qu'est ce que vous avez a vous en offusquer? c quoi ces manieres de sainte nitouches alors que c comme ca que ca marche? economie de marche les gars, faut tout faire pour avoir des contracts. Ca m'enerve les gens comme vous, parce que le jour ou Thales doit virer du personnel parce qu'ils ont pas assez de contracts, vous etes les premiers a gueuler et trouver ca injuste, tout en vous en foutant royalement parce que vous etes penards dans votre vie a fumer des petards et matter des films que vous avez telecharge illegalement. Allez crever dans votre mediocrite!


Mouais pardon…
On fera plus gaffe à partir de maintenant. Mais quand même, je connais un mec qui bossait pour un complexe militaro-industriel sur des fours mirco-ondes géants pour les émeutes en cote d’ivoire. Et ben… figurez vous qu’il avait une close de confidentialité de malade (genre à vie) dans son contrat mais que Thales a quand même essayé de le démarcher en prétextant que la justice en Afrique c’était une blague… Heureusement le pote en question c’est rétracté et maintenant il fait pousser du pavot en Colombie. Ouf…


ca c une occupation qui est saine! Il a trouve sa voie, c'est bien, il en a de la chance...


N@ZIs raus!

comments closed