Thursday, September 8, 2005

Comments Vault

14

Celebrities dominated the fashion scene in 2003. Jennifer Lopez, Cate Blanchett, Liv Tyler, Christina Aguilera, Kristen Scott Thomas, and Samantha Morton promoted the work of leading fashion designers Louis Vuitton, Donna Karan, Givenchy, Donatella Versace, Giorgio Armani, and Marc Jacobs (see Biographies), respectively. Chanel appointed Oscar winner Nicole Kidman to be the face of the brand's legendary perfume, No. 5, a deal that earned the actress about .8 million. In July the Gap released a TV-ad campaign starring Madonna and rapper Missy Elliott, who together promoted jeans and T-shirts for the Gap's autumn-winter collection. As a part of her deal, Madonna signed a tie-in agreement that included the sale of her children's book, The English Roses, which was published in September. The Gap's rationale for appointing Madonna and Missy Elliott was shared by high-fashion designers who hired celebrity spokesmodels to attract more cash-rich female shoppers in their 30s and 40s. Iconic celebrity looks also proved inspirational to designers and the general public. Diana Ross's decadent 1970s early-disco style guided Tom Ford's autumn-winter 2003 collection for Yves Saint Laurent (YSL), and actress Ava Gardner's starlet glamour influenced the couture that Emanuel Ungaro presented for autumn-winter. “Hollywood, anyone!” read the program at Valentino's autumn-winter couture collection, which featured a parade of models wearing sable-trimmed dresses, embroidered-silk trouser suits, and long strapless satin evening dresses, accompanied by a retrospective video that captured Sophia Loren, Julia Roberts, and Elizabeth Taylor wearing Valentino couture at past Academy Awards ceremonies. For sartorial inspiration, young women looked to Kelly Osbourne, the 19-year-old singer and costar of the MTV reality sitcom The Osbournes, whose neo-Gothic look relied on chipped black nail polish, messy hair, vintage sunglasses, and Converse running shoes, as well as the 18-year-old Canadian rock star Avril Lavigne, whose messy disheveled, layered skateboard style was composed of baggy trousers and a T-shirt over which she wore an open-neck men's-style shirt and loosely knotted tie. Dolce & Gabbana claimed David Beckham and his pop-star wife, Victoria, as muses for the menswear and women's wear collection. The English association football (soccer) star and his wife modeled clothes by the Milanese design duo's collection throughout the year and wore them when they made a high-profile joint public appearance at events such as the MTV Movie Awards in Los Angeles. In June, at the All-England (Wimbledon) Championships, tennis player Venus Williams modeled on court another fashion-celebrity tie-in—RBK by DVF, a collection of tennis wear produced by New York designer Diane Von Furstenberg together with the sportswear company Reebok. Film proved to be a potent form of media for promoting fashion. A slew of light comedies were released during 2003 that bore similarities to the successful TV sitcom Sex and the City, which showcased pricey footwear, notably that of Spanish designer Manolo Blahnik. (See Biographies.) The films featured beautiful, fashionably dressed actresses and attracted audiences as much for their quirky plot lines as for the promise of viewing cutting-edge designer labels. In Le Divorce, Kate Hudson carried a Hermes Kelly handbag, and Reese Witherspoon wore shoes by Jimmy Choo in Legally Blonde 2: Red White and Blonde. Fashionable films proved to be an expanding genre; the Fox film company announced plans to make into a film the 2003 best-selling novel The Devil Wears Prada. The sardonic work, about an assistant who works for the irrational editor of a fashion magazine, was written by Lauren Weisberger, a former assistant to American Vogue editor Anna Wintour, upon whom the central character was loosely based. Miramax acquired for £404,000 (about 0,000) the rights to Bergdorf Blondes, a novel written by Vogue writer Plum Sykes about a British fashion writer looking for love in Manhattan. New York's Killer Films announced plans to make Simply Halston, a biopic of the legendary American designer Roy Halston Frowick. Red-carpet occasions, especially film premieres and awards ceremonies, greatly influenced the direction of the ready-to-wear and couture collections. Designers presented flashy clothes seemingly aimed at catching the attention of celebrity stylists, who appeared at the seasonal shows in increasing numbers. For the autumn-winter season, jewel-encrusted tops and dresses appeared in Alber Elbaz's debut collection for the House of Lanvin as well as in ensembles designed by Alexander McQueen. Satin clothes and accessories appeared for both day and evening wear in an array of candy colours as well as in strong shades of basic black, bright purple, electric blue, and caramel in the spring-summer and autumn-winter ready-to-wear collections of Valentino, Missoni, Prada, Gucci, Chanel, and Carolina Herrara. A standout look was Louis Vuitton's satin minidress, which, in its June issue, American Vogue christened “Dress of the Month,” claiming it was a “luxurious upgrade of a retro diner uniform.” One of the trendsetting looks that debuted on the red carpet was the chandelier-style earrings worn by Kidman and Julianne Moore at the 2003 Golden Globe Awards. The presence at Los Angeles Fashion Week of Hollywood stars Witherspoon, Mena Suvari, China Chow, and Anjelica Huston made the show a noteworthy occasion. In April and late October, Seventh on Sixth, the organizer of New York City fashion shows, staged its first series of centralized fashion shows in Los Angeles and attracted recognized local design-talent participants, including actress Tara Subkoff, the designer of Imitation of Christ, and designers Trina Turk, David Cardona, and Frankie B. A wide range of global ideas pushed the boundaries of the fashion world beyond the traditional Western capitals. For his spring-summer collection, Jacobs collaborated with Japanese artist Takashi Murakami to make “eye love,” a line of handbags that merged the luxury label's iconic monogrammatic print with the artist's Pop-art graphics. During the autumn-winter ready-to-wear collections in Paris, African model Alek Wek launched “1933,” an accessories and handbag collection inspired by her native country, The Sudan. In May the New York City department store Lord & Taylor devoted 20 of its Fifth Avenue windows to promotion of the work of four designers from India: Tarun Tahiliani, Rina Dhaka, Vivek Narang, and Manish Arora. The New York Times reported that Lakme India Fashion Week in Mumbai (Bombay) attracted increasing numbers of international buyers, an advantage that helped boost the presence of native fashion talent at the annual event. Italian Vogue's March 2003 issue featured a 15-page portfolio of portraits, shot by Nathaniel Goldberg, of prominent stylish Indian women dressed in traditional saris and sumptuous jewels, and a spring-summer advertising campaign produced by Valentino featured an Indian model displaying a traditional bindhi dot on her forehead. Yves Carcelle, head of the fashion group at LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, told the New York Times in May that “India is changing quite fast”; Louis Vuitton opened its 298th shop during the year—in New Delhi's Oberoi Hotel. While exotic ideas and celebrity glamour helped shift high-fashion merchandise, common themes that united the year's major fashion trends were affordability and wearability. At the spring-summer collections, a safe colour palette, consisting of pretty pinks and pastel shades, dominated women's wear. Appearing on the runways at Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana, and Balenciaga were basic shapes, including combat trousers—made of parachute silk and satin—that were often accessorized with stilettos. Though some fashion critics spoke out against designers who capitalized on military-inspired styles during a time of war, cargo and combat pants proved to be an overwhelmingly popular street-fashion trend. So too were denim miniskirts, designer jeans, and basic black leggings, which first appeared as a part of Nicolas Ghesquiere's surf-inspired spring-summer collection for Balenciaga. After a slew of celebrities were spotted wearing black leggings—Chloë Sevigny at a Cannes Film Festival premiere and Stella McCartney and Kate Moss in London—British retailer Top Shop reportedly sold them by the hundreds. In summer inexpensive rubber flip flops proliferated as a unisex look on the beach and on city streets. Those made by Brazilian company Havaianas became cult items—supermodels Naomi Campbell, Moss, and Gisele Bündchen were photographed wearing them. For autumn-winter a greatest-hits array of safe, classic retro styles from nearly every decade of the 20th century appeared on the runways, including turn-of-the-century corsets designed by Dolce & Gabbana, Versace, and McCartney; 1940s-style fur collars and tweed separates; and 1950s-inspired pencil skirts. Evening wear inspired by one of Audrey Hepburn's most famous roles, Sabrina, appeared at Givenchy, and the 1960s mod miniskirt look proved to be a major inspiration for Jacobs. Affordable fashion was a direct response to the continued slowdown of the global economy. A collapsing dollar and yen, the outbreak of and ongoing war in Iraq, and the epidemic of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) were all factors that curbed consumer spending worldwide. (The SARS outbreak, however, started a craze in Hong Kong for the wearing of protective face masks bearing counterfeit prints of luxury fashion logos and imitation Burberry plaid.) The Hong Kong-based company Tommy Hilfiger reported losses of 3 million (in the year up to March), and the Gucci Group reportedly injected £4 million (about .7 million) to revive the Stella McCartney brand, which struggled to break even, reporting losses during the summer of £2.7 million (about .5 million) despite the high profile of the celebrity designer; her friends Gwyneth Paltrow and Hudson were known to wear her clothes. In August McCartney married Alasdhair Willis, a British entrepreneur and the former publisher of the magazine Wallpaper. Not all fashion forecasts were gloomy, however. Profits soared by 52% for Hilfiger's rival Ralph Lauren. The Gucci Group announced increased profits of 75.3% for its recent acquisition, YSL, while some of its other labels, Gucci, Alexander McQueen, and Stella McCartney, each opened new boutiques in London, on New Bond Street and elsewhere. In an effort to stimulate flagging sales at Jil Sander, the Prada Group—which paid €100 million (about 7 million) for the German label and then reported losses of €26.3 million (about million)—hired back its original founder, Jil Sander, as a creative director and board member. In December 2000 after Prada acquired 75% of her company, Sander had departed the company swiftly, owing to what she described as the “hands-on interference of Patrizio Bertelli,” Prada's chief executive. In March the sportswear giant Liz Claiborne acquired for an undisclosed multimillion-dollar sum the hip Los Angeles denim and casual label Juicy Couture. Lars Nilsson, the Swedish-born designer for Bill Blass, was appointed artistic director of women's wear at the French fashion house Nina Ricci. In July, Los Angeles designer Rick Owens debuted a new sportswear collection for Revillon, the 280-year-old French furrier; it featured experimental looks, including asymmetrically cut shrugs and stoles made from sliced sable, mink, and goat. In May, Jean-Paul Gaultier replaced Martin Margiela as creative director of the French luxury-goods house Hermes. In autumn the London-based Ghanian-born designer Ozwald Boateng became the first Savile Row tailor to open an American store on Madison Avenue in New York City. Phillips-Van Heusen acquired Calvin Klein, and in September Klein retired as design director of the company's women's wear line. He was replaced by Francisco Costa, a 34-year-old Brazilian designer who had formerly worked for Ford at Gucci. For his services to British fashion, Jimmy Choo was made an honorary OBE in June. Francesco Trussardi, the 29-year old CEO of the Italian luxury-fashion house Trussardi, was killed in a car accident in January. Eleanor Lambert, the founder of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, died in October. (See Obituaries.)


13

Glamour became the style catchword of 1994 and summarized a look of being dressed up and made up. The new sophistication put an end to dressing down, the look popularized in 1993 by grunge and the style known as deconstruction, which featured clothes with unfinished seams, unironed cloth, and conspicuous stitching. For women, tailored trouser and skirt suits, short swingy dresses, brightly coloured clothes in rich lustrous fabrics, fake animal prints, red lipstick, and stiletto heels replaced 1993's looser, less constructed look. So enthusiastically were the new elements of style received that the fashion press christened the look "the new glamour." The look, however, was not new. Fashion designers who made grunge clothes in 1993--mostly the young designers of Milan, Paris, and New York City--sent down the runways a style that was likened to the glam rock and disco-influenced fashions popular in the late 1970s. A more direct inspiration behind several collections from young designers, particularly those of Marc Jacobs and Anna Sui of the U.S., was Yves Saint Laurent's flashy coloured, slickly tailored clothes of the '70s. The short silver miniskirts and see-through plastic garments that many designers made to add a futuristic feel to their collections were reminiscent of the '60s designs by French couturier André Courreges. The real news that came with glamour was the arrival of Nadja Auermann, a 23-year-old model from Berlin, who captured centre stage after hairdresser Julien D'Ys bleached her once dirty-blonde hair pure white. Auermann, standing at 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in), her lips painted an alarming red, and her platinum blonde hair hanging down her back, was the image of glamour personified. Dressed up in sheer plastics and shiny satin clothes, she became a futuristic depiction of an Amazon woman. The "Styles" section of the New York Times heralded Auermann's "On-the-cover coup" after she simultaneously graced the covers of the thick September issues of four major fashion magazines: English and American Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and the British street-style magazine The Face. But it was design elements--particularly the return of tailoring that flattered the female form, as well as colour-rich fabrics and accessories--that established glamour as the year's prevailing fashion mood. The length of skirts rose from the ankle to the knee (having not been seen since the 1940s, it was dubbed "the new length") or to just below or well above the thigh. Trousers, always paired with a man-tailored jacket, were slim and no longer flared at the ankle. The dress made a major comeback. On the catwalk U.S. designer Donna Karan showed it as a staple to be worn to work by day paired with a jacket and worn alone in the evening. Other designers made dresses as fashion statements. The long, straight-to-the-floor singlets of rhinestones or velvet from the Italian design duo Dolce e Gabbana's autumn/winter collection, the bias-cut light-coloured long satin slip dresses designed by John Galliano, and Gianni Versace's slithering sheaths of silver metal mesh signified that it was indeed fashionable to dress up again. The idea caught on. The baby-doll dress was promoted by U.S. designers Sui and Betsey Johnson for the spring and summer seasons. Supermodels and Courtney Love, a singer and the widow of Nirvana's lead singer Kurt Cobain (see OBITUARIES), were high-profile endorsers of the style. But the baby doll did not prove as popular as summer's ensemble--the short black slip dress worn over a basic white T-shirt. Dolce e Gabbana and U.S. designer Ralph Lauren put the look together first. It was later copied by chain stores. Though glamour set the prevailing mood in 1994, the street continued to influence fashion. For his spring collection Jean-Paul Gaultier included T-shirts and leggings printed with tattoos. His male and female models appeared body pierced, sporting stud earrings above their eyebrows and hoops through their navels. Hoops also dangled from ears and were attached to noses with a chain. Popular fashions seen on urban streets were colourful suede sneakers and tight child-sized T-shirts worn by young women. The costume department of London's Victoria and Albert Museum also devoted an exhibition to the influence of the street on 20th-century fashion. Punk, the popular '70s British street style, was Versace's influence for spring/summer. The clothes he unveiled, however, had little to do with the original punk designs--ripped T-shirts held together with safety pins, bondage trousers, and neon colours. Versace made his own safety pins to hype his new look, and he used punk as an excuse to use colour in such shockingly bright shades as hot pink, electric blue, orange, and yellow. Men's fashion offered a more genuine brand of punk style. Dolce e Gabbana paired authentic copies of bondage trousers with colourful mohair sweaters. So popular was colour in the autumn/winter collections that it was difficult to distinguish whether the shades used were appropriate for cold winter months. Such items as short suede skirts came in acid-bright orange, as did long shearling coats. White, which was offered as an alternative to fashion's perennial basic colour, black, was also used to set off bright colours. White tights appeared with skirts, and white leather was popular for shoes and jackets. For his autumn/winter collection, Versace's colour was so bright that it shined--thanks to his use of metallics and a special spray that lacquered his moiré and silk crepe. To achieve the same shiny effect, other designers used polyvinyl chloride to make trousers, skirts, tight tops, raincoats, and patches on sweaters. Patent leather and see-through plastic were popular materials for the sleek, spikey stiletto, the shoe that replaced the chunky platform. Fake fur eclipsed real pelts in several designers' collections, appearing in rich gem-toned colours and such animal prints as leopard, pony skin, and zebra. Animal prints, particularly fake leopard, also debuted in the men's autumn/winter collections. In 1994 the Washington, D.C.-based animal activists organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals stepped up its campaign to convince fashion industry professionals that it was morally objectionable to promote the use of fur. Such supermodels as Christy Turlington and Naomi Campbell went public, posing naked on billboards with the slogan "I'd Rather Go Naked than Wear Fur" emblazoned across their bare chests. U.S. designers Karan and Calvin Klein also went public with their decision not to design with fur. Some questioned the practicality of the glamorous new styles. Women could not wear fishnet stockings, sequined miniskirts, and stilettos to the office. Some historians believed that the return of glamour was a reaction to the protracted economic slump. Department store buyers agreed and claimed that after six years of recession, customers had enough basics in their wardrobe. Women may not have adopted the entire look as it appeared on the runways, but they were shopping. Women's Wear Daily reported that in just one week at the end of the summer, Karan racked up 0,000 in sales at the New York City department store Bergdorf Goodman. In 10 days the U.S. department store Macy's sold 3,000 padded push-up bras manufactured by Wonderbra, a key glamour accessory. In the U.S. overall retail sales increased by a slim 7% compared with 1993. Klein's prominence in the fashion industry seemed to strengthen as the year progressed. His perfume CK ONE was fashion's first official unisex scent, and it was also the first fragrance to be sold by the music chain Tower Records. Klein, like other designers, branched out globally. To strengthen business abroad, he opened offices in Japan and Milan. Karan also launched a Milan-based office to build up a European clientele. The Gap, a U.S. clothing chain, opened its first European boutique in Paris. Men's fashion in 1994 offered something for every man, ranging from sober gray flannel suits to kilts, bright-coloured mohair sweaters, and powder blue biker jackets. Though wild elements were included in the 1994 collections, men's fashion returned to the traditional styles of tailoring. The dominant theme was classic tailoring taken from the traditional suit cuts of London's Savile Row tailors, and the clothes presented were suitable for a refined English gentleman. The move in menswear in recent years had been toward relaxation. In 1994, however, the emphasis was on a put-together look. The focus was the suit, whether sharply tailored with a double-breasted jacket, soft-shouldered, three-piece with a waistcoat, or styled for the street with white shirt cuffs hanging loose and long from the sleeve. Wool suits were cut in basic colours, including black, as well as tweeds and tartans. Designs for young men had a strong theme of rebellion. Gaultier's kilt, now a permanent part of his collection, became a viable alternative to trousers. Men wore kilts on the street and to nightclubs. Berets, Doc Martens, and combat boots were other sartorial symbols of rebellion. In September, just before the fall shows, the Italian fashion industry was saddened by the death of avant-garde designer Franco Moschino (see OBITUARIES) and shocked by revelations that such high-profile designers as Giorgio Armani and Gianfranco Ferre were accused of bribing tax inspectors. Santo Versace, Gianni's brother, was also implicated in the scandal. The industry was astounded to learn in December that French couturier Alix Grès had died in November 1993. (BRONWYN COSGRAVE)

12


Andy Warhol

born August 6, 1928?, Pittsburgh?, Pennsylvania, U.S.
died February 22, 1987, New York, New York

original name  Andrew Warhola   American artist and filmmaker, an initiator and leading exponent of the Pop art movement of the 1960s whose mass-produced art apotheosized the supposed banality of the commercial culture of the United States. An adroit self-publicist, he projected a concept of the artist as an impersonal, even vacuous, figure who is nevertheless a successful celebrity, businessman, and social climber.
Photograph:Mao, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas by Andy Warhol, 1973; in the Art …
Mao, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas by Andy Warhol, 1973; in the Art …
Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved, Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan Purchase Prize, Wilson L. Mead funds, 1971.230 The son of Czechoslovak immigrants, Warhol graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, with a degree in pictorial design in 1949. He then went to New York City, where he worked as a commercial illustrator for about a decade. Warhol began painting in the late 1950s and received sudden notoriety in 1962, when he exhibited paintings of Campbell's soup cans, Coca-Cola bottles, and wooden replicas of Brillo soap pad boxes. By 1963 he was mass-producing these purposely banal images of consumer goods by means of photographic silk screen prints, and he then began printing endless variations of portraits of celebrities in garish colours. The silk screen technique was ideally suited to Warhol, for the repeated image was reduced to an insipid and dehumanized cultural icon that reflected both the supposed emptiness of American material culture and the artist's emotional noninvolvement with the practice of his art. Warhol's work placed him in the forefront of the emerging Pop art movement in America. As the 1960s progressed, Warhol devoted more of his energy to filmmaking. Usually classed as underground films, such motion pictures of his as The Chelsea Girls (1966), Eat (1963), My Hustler (1965), and Blue Movie (1969) are known for their inventive eroticism, plotless boredom, and inordinate length (up to 25 hours). In 1968 Warhol was shot and nearly killed by one of his would-be followers, a member of his assemblage of underground film and rock music stars, assorted hangers-on, and social curiosities. Warhol had by this time become a well-known fixture on the fashion and avant-garde art scene and was an influential celebrity in his own right. Throughout the 1970s and until his death he continued to produce prints depicting political and Hollywood celebrities, and he involved himself in a wide range of advertising illustrations and other commercial art projects. His The Philosophy of Andy Warhol, published in 1975, was followed by Portraits of the Seventies (1979) and Andy Warhol's Exposures (1979).


11


Andy Warhol

born August 6, 1928?, Pittsburgh?, Pennsylvania, U.S.
died February 22, 1987, New York, New York

original name  Andrew Warhola   American artist and filmmaker, an initiator and leading exponent of the Pop art movement of the 1960s whose mass-produced art apotheosized the supposed banality of the commercial culture of the United States. An adroit self-publicist, he projected a concept of the artist as an impersonal, even vacuous, figure who is nevertheless a successful celebrity, businessman, and social climber.
Photograph:Mao, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas by Andy Warhol, 1973; in the Art …
Mao, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas by Andy Warhol, 1973; in the Art …
Courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved, Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan Purchase Prize, Wilson L. Mead funds, 1971.230 The son of Czechoslovak immigrants, Warhol graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, with a degree in pictorial design in 1949. He then went to New York City, where he worked as a commercial illustrator for about a decade. Warhol began painting in the late 1950s and received sudden notoriety in 1962, when he exhibited paintings of Campbell's soup cans, Coca-Cola bottles, and wooden replicas of Brillo soap pad boxes. By 1963 he was mass-producing these purposely banal images of consumer goods by means of photographic silk screen prints, and he then began printing endless variations of portraits of celebrities in garish colours. The silk screen technique was ideally suited to Warhol, for the repeated image was reduced to an insipid and dehumanized cultural icon that reflected both the supposed emptiness of American material culture and the artist's emotional noninvolvement with the practice of his art. Warhol's work placed him in the forefront of the emerging Pop art movement in America. As the 1960s progressed, Warhol devoted more of his energy to filmmaking. Usually classed as underground films, such motion pictures of his as The Chelsea Girls (1966), Eat (1963), My Hustler (1965), and Blue Movie (1969) are known for their inventive eroticism, plotless boredom, and inordinate length (up to 25 hours). In 1968 Warhol was shot and nearly killed by one of his would-be followers, a member of his assemblage of underground film and rock music stars, assorted hangers-on, and social curiosities. Warhol had by this time become a well-known fixture on the fashion and avant-garde art scene and was an influential celebrity in his own right. Throughout the 1970s and until his death he continued to produce prints depicting political and Hollywood celebrities, and he involved himself in a wide range of advertising illustrations and other commercial art projects. His The Philosophy of Andy Warhol, published in 1975, was followed by Portraits of the Seventies (1979) and Andy Warhol's Exposures (1979).


10

In the summer of 2001, the completed paintings from American artist Jeff Koons's much-anticipated and ongoing series of works were exhibited to great acclaim at the Kunsthaus in Bregenz, Austria. They represented his most ambitious project, Celebration, an extensive series of large-scale paintings and sculptures that had occupied him since 1993 and that included canvases and sculptural works depicting popular recognizable imagery, notably children's toys, snack foods, or a colourful pile of Play-Doh set against a Mylar-silver background.
Koons was born on Jan. 21, 1955, in York, Pa. After studying at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Maryland Institute College of Art, he moved to New York City in 1976. His career as a commodities trader on Wall Street helped fund his artistic endeavours, which in the beginning involved the purchase of consumer goods and the repositioning of them as art objects. Perhaps more than any of his contemporaries in the New York art world of the 1980s, Koons and his art embodied the flashy materialism and technique of appropriation that were associated with that period; for Koons, however, it was a matter of context. One of his first series consisted of brand-new vacuum cleaners placed in glass cases, lit by fluorescent lights, and showcased like precious objects or cultural specimens. He followed with Equilibrium Tanks—ordinary aquariums filled with water in which basketballs were suspended. Many visitors to his exhibits, in addition to critics, dismissed Koons as a fraud, declaring him and his work facile at best and insincere, talentless, and totally corrupt at worst. These opinions were fostered in part because of the atelier of assistants and fabricators who performed much of the labour involved in making a “Jeff Koons.” Koons, however, viewed his work in an almost moral dimension; as he explained in a 1997 interview, “I have the need to maintain a spiritual trust in the work, so if somebody is viewing it they will never feel let down.”
The provocative nature of his work reached its high point when Koons first showed his controversial Made in Heaven series at the Venice Biennale in 1990. This group of works included small glass sculptures and numerous photographic tableaux of Koons and Ilona Staller, the Italian porn star better known as Cicciolina, engaging in sexual acts. A combination of kitsch, theatricality, and explicit sexuality, the works were intended by the artist to celebrate his love for Cicciolina, whom he married in 1991. The couple produced a son, Ludwig, but separated in 1992.
Koons's work was also playful at times, conveying an almost childlike innocence. After Made in Heaven, he created a series of three-dimensional brightly painted ceramic figures of dogs and cats and porcelain bouquets of flowers. His monumental sculpture Puppy was an example of his desire to create archetypal images that would be understood by everyone. The 12-m (40-ft)-high puppy covered with many thousands of live flowering plants was unveiled in 1992 in Arolsen, Ger., and was later shown in Bilbao, Spain, and it most recently was displayed at Rockefeller Center, New York City, in 2000. Celebration signaled that a new, mature phase was under way in Koons's career.


0

Your post isn’t only applying to sexuality, after 1945, education has cooped us up in fine mine-free fringe of reality. Is it so bad?

1

Agree. Culture as well.
Bad? ^_^

2

Culture in a Neolithic context, is more about cultivating humans than cereals. I respect what our parents have been installing to protect us from going to far.

3

paranoiaque schizophrene tu l'es et tu le travail hardemment, mais souffres-tu parfois de psittacisme?

4

Is your rhetorical phatic question an automatic response resulting from engaging someone?
The utterance of Psittacism is an intoxicated kind of speech act. If the symptoms persist, it will be relevant to consider the origin of the intoxication.

5

hmmm...du beantwortest nicht meine Frage...

6

Ce qu’Etienne veut dire c’est que ton blog est AS BEEN. Tu répètes en boucle des conneries éculées depuis quasiment 20 ans. Ton affiliation avec l’église des subgenisus ça commence à dater. C’est bon, on sait que le modèle américain est décadent et qu’il s’effondre. Tu vas pas nous la rejouer à la Johnny. C’est fini le business du « ouais moi je connais mieux les states que vous du coup je vais vous expliquer la life ». Ton style, d’une agressivité fatigante atteste d’un évident manque de confiance en toi. Et ton franglais est insupportable ; autant pour un français que pour un anglais. Bref, j’arrête là sinon tu vas encore chialer. lol. Tout ça pour dire qu’on a pas que ça à foutre que de te faire plaisir en faisant semblant de lire tes borborygmes de dépressif que veut se la jouer schizo. Faut que tu passes la seconde chouchou, parce que là, sous couvert de vouloir accélérer, t’es au point mort ! Mo non, fais pas la gueule, il est joli ton site.

7

Merci de m'avoir explique la life.

8

merci nico. le caractere de ton site, chocant dans un premier temps, lasse. Ce qui a sauve Dali, c est qu il a eut la l intelligence de comprendre que le delir psycho-intello s etouffe par lui meme, si il n apporte pas sa pierre a l edifice de la pensee classique. la grandeur est de pouvoir apporter sa pierre a l edifice, toi tu bouscule tout alors que tout le monde sait que tu en aura jamais a assumer les concequences. la pauvrete de ce systeme commence a remonter a la surface... mais est ce que nico et gilem©n ne font qu un?

9

d'abord c'est celui qui dit qui l'est!

comments closed